top of page
  • Writer's pictureAmanda

GHK-Cu Peptide for Skin Regeneration and Protective Actions

Updated: Aug 7, 2023

The peptide GHK-Cu (glycyl-l-histidyl-l-lysine) has multiple biological actions, all of which, according to our current knowledge, appear to be health positive. It stimulates blood vessel and nerve outgrowth, increases collagen, elastin, and glycosaminoglycan synthesis, as well as supports the function of dermal fibroblasts. GHK-Cu’s ability to improve tissue repair has been demonstrated for skin, lung connective tissue, boney tissue, liver, and stomach lining. GHK-Cu has also been found to possess powerful cell protective actions, such as multiple anti-cancer activities and anti-inflammatory actions, lung protection and restoration of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) fibroblasts, suppression of molecules thought to accelerate the diseases of aging such as NFκB, anti-anxiety, anti-pain and anti-aggression activities, DNA repair, and activation of cell cleansing via the proteasome system. Recent genetic data may explain such diverse protective and healing actions of one molecule, revealing multiple biochemical pathways regulated by GHK-Cu.

Introduction to GHK-Cu

The copper-binding peptide GHK-Cu (glycyl-l-histidyl-l-lysine) is a small, naturally occurring tri-peptide present in human plasma that also can be released from tissues in case of an injury. Since its discovery in 1973, GHK-Cu established itself as a powerful protective and regenerative ingredient, which is currently widely used in skin and hair products [1].

Up-to-date, it is established that GHK-Cu is able to:

  • Tighten loose skin and reverse thinning of aged skin

  • Repair protective skin barrier proteins

  • Improve skin firmness, elasticity, and clarity

  • Reduce fine lines, depth of wrinkles, and improve structure of aged skin

  • Smooth rough skin

  • Reduce photodamage, mottled hyperpigmentation, skin spots and lesions

  • Improve overall skin appearance

  • Stimulate wound healing

  • Protect skin cells from UV radiation

  • Reduce inflammation and free radical damage

  • Increase hair growth and thickness, enlarge hair follicle size

Skin’s ability to withstand damage and repair itself is highest in children and young individuals because of well-functioning repair and protective mechanisms. However, with age, skin’s ability to repair damage declines. GHK-Cu content is highest in the plasma of young, healthy individuals. At age 20, the plasma level of GHK is about 200 ng/mL (10−7 M), and by the age of 60, it declines to 80 ng/mL. In the experiment that led to discovery of GHK-Cu, plasma from young individuals added to liver tissue obtained from older individuals, caused old liver tissue to produce proteins more characteristic of younger individuals [6].

In the 1980s, Maquart et al. proposed that GHK-Cu may be an early signal for skin repair. The GHK amino acid sequence is present in the alpha 2(I) chain of type I collagen, and when damage activates proteolytic enzymes, GHK-Cu is released into the site of an injury [7]. A number of experiments established that GHK-Cu stimulates synthesis of collagen, selected glycosaminoglycans and small proteoglycan decorin [8,9]. It also modulates activity of key metalloproteinases, which are enzymes that facilitate breakdown of proteins of extracellular matrix, as well as activity of anti-proteases. This suggests a general regulatory effect on protein breakdown in skin, helping to prevent both buildup of damaged proteins and excessive proteolysis [10,11]. Since excessive breakdown of the dermal matrix as well as inadequate removal of damaged proteins can negatively affect skin’s health and appearance, GHK’s ability to regulate both metalloproteinases and their inhibitors can support skin regeneration and improve its appearance.

GHK also demonstrated beneficial effects on skin fibroblasts, which are considered key cells in the skin regeneration process. Fibroblasts not only synthesize structural elements of the dermal matrix but also produce a wide range of growth factors essential for skin repair. GHK, in combination with LED irradiation (light emitting diode irradiation, 625–635 nm), compared with the LED irradiation alone increased: cell viability 12.5-fold, production of the basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), 230%, and collagen synthesis, 70% [12].

GHK-Cu has been found to stimulate epidermal basal cells, markedly increasing integrins and p63 expression. The cells’ shape became more cuboidal, which indicates an increase in their stemness [13].

Cosmetic Use of GHK-Cu

A number of clinical studies confirmed GHK-Cu’s ability to improve appearance of aging skin. A facial cream containing GHK-Cu applied for 12 weeks to the facial skin of 71 women with mild to advanced signs of photoaging increased skin density and thickness, reduced laxity, improved clarity, reduced fine lines and the depth of wrinkles [14].

A GHK-Cu eye cream applied for 12 weeks to around-the-eye area of 41 women with mild to advanced photodamage performed better than placebo and vitamin K cream. It reduced lines and wrinkles, improved overall appearance, and increased skin density and thickness [15].

GHK-Cu applied to thigh skin for 12 weeks improved collagen production in 70% of the women treated, in contrast to 50% treated with the vitamin C cream, and 40% treated with retinoic acid [16]. In addition to improving skin laxity, clarity, firmness and appearance, reducing fine lines, coarse wrinkles and mottled pigmentation, and increasing skin density and thickness, GHK-Cu cream applied twice daily for 12 weeks also strongly stimulated dermal keratinocyte proliferation [17].

With their pilot study for topical application of copper tripeptide complexes in aged skin, Krüger et al. confirmed an increase in skin thickness in the range of the epidermis and dermis, improved skin hydration, a significant smoothing of the skin by stimulating collagen synthesis, increased skin elasticity, a significant improvement in skin contrast and an increased production of collagen I [18,19].

GHK-Cu at 0.01, 1 and 100 nM incubated with human adult dermal fibroblasts increased production of elastin and collagen. GHK also increased gene expression of MMP1 and MMP2 at the 0.01 nM. All concentrations increased TIMP1. The effects of GHK-Cu were also investigated in a randomised, double–blind clinical trial. Female volunteers applied GHK-Cu, encapsulated in nano-lipid carrier twice a day in the course of 8 weeks using either carrier alone or the commercially available peptide Matrixyl® 3000 as controls. Compared to Matrixyl® 3000, GHK-Cu produced a 31.6% reduction of wrinkle volume. Compared to control serum, GHK-Cu reduced wrinkle volume 55.8% and wrinkle depth 32.8% [20].

Animal Studies Confirm Wound Healing Activity of GHK-cu

Multiple animal studies have established the wound healing activity of GHK. It appears that GHK-Cu stimulates wound healing through a variety of mechanisms. In rabbit experimental wounds, GHK-Cu alone or in combination with high dose helium–neon laser improved wound contraction and formation of granular tissue, as well as increasing activity of antioxidant enzymes and stimulating blood vessel growth [21,22]. Collagen dressing with incorporated GHK-Cu (PIC-Peptide Incorporated Collagen) accelerated healing of wounds in healthy and diabetic rats. The treated group displayed higher glutathione (GSH) and ascorbic acid levels, better epithelialization, as well as increased synthesis of collagen and activation of fibroblasts and mast cells in wounds. In healthy rats, treatment of wounds with PIC increased collagen 9-fold [23,24]. GHK-Cu improved healing of ischemic open wounds in rats. Wounds displayed faster healing, decreased concentration of metalloproteinases 2 and 9 as well as of TNF-β (a major inflammatory cytokine) compared with vehicle alone or with untreated wounds [25].

Stimulation of Blood Vessel and Nerve Growth

Nerve and blood vessel growth is an important factor in skin healing and regeneration.

Sage et al. observed that GHK-Cu and related peptides are produced in the course of protein breakdown after an injury from a SPARC protein. SPARC (Secreted Protein Acidic and Rich in Cysteine) is a glycoprotein, mostly expressed in embryonic tissues and in tissues undergoing repair and remodeling. At initial stages of tissue repair, GHK and other peptides containing the GHK-Cu sequence (such as KGHK), which are released from SPARC in the course of proteolysis, stimulate new vessels growth. Later in the healing process, GHK-Cu and GHK-related peptides inhibit blood vessel growth [26].

Anti-Oxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Actions

As animal experiments show, treatment of wounds with GHK leads to elevated levels of antioxidant enzymes. GHK also possesses strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions. GHK inactivated damaging free radical by-products of lipid peroxidation, such as 4-hydroxynoneal, acrolein, malondialdehyde, and glyoxal, protecting cultured skin keratinocytes from ultraviolet (UV)-radiation [31]. GHK was shown to completely block Cu(2+)-dependent oxidation of low density lipoproteins (LDL). Another well-known anti-oxidant, which is also widely used in skin care, superoxide dismutase (SOD1), gave only 20% protection [32]. GHK also prevents damaging effects of lipid peroxidation, by binding its by-products such as acrolein and 4-hydroxynonenal [33,34].

GHK-Cu reduced iron release from ferritin by 87%. Ferritin in blood plasma can store up to 4500 atoms of iron per protein molecule, which is a well-known catalyst of lipid peroxidation—a chain reaction, which produces a slew of free radicals, leading to DNA, protein and cell membrane damage. Disturbances in iron metabolism contribute to many pathological conditions, including brain damage and neuron death under various neurological conditions. When iron is released from ferritin, it can form an Fe(2+)/Fe(3+) complex and start the chain reaction of lipid oxidation [35].


GHK-Cu is a small molecule, which possesses a surprisingly wide range of health-promoting qualities, while new studies are still revealing an even broader scope of GHK-Cus biological effects.

In the past, the wound healing, tissue remodeling, angiogenesis-promoting, cell-growth stimulating, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant actions of GHK-Cu were attributed to its unique relationship with copper. Copper is a transitional metal that is vital for all eukaryotic organisms from microbes to humans. Since it can be converted from oxidized Cu(II) to reduced Cu(I) form, it functions as an essential co-factor in a multitude of biochemical reactions involving electron transfer. A dozen enzymes (cuproenzymes) use changes in copper oxidation states to catalyze important biochemical reactions, including cellular respiration (cytochrome c oxidase), antioxidant defense (ceruloplasmin, superoxide dismutase (SOD), detoxification (metallothioneins), blood clotting (blood clotting factors V and VIII), and the connective tissue formation (lysyl peroxidase). Copper is required for iron metabolism, oxygenation, neurotransmission, embryonic development and many other essential biological processes [64].

Even though the copper hypothesis of GHK-Cu’s mode of action is still valid, we feel that it doesn’t explain the gene modulating effects of GHK-Cu. Therefore, in light of the new gene data, a new model of GHK-Cu action is needed, which will require collaboration of researchers from different fields.

As new gene profiling studies reveal, GHK-Cu with and without copper affects a large number of genes related to an organism’s response to stress and injury (tissue remodeling, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-pain, anti-anxiety, blood vessel growth, nerve outgrowth, anti-cancer action). GHK-Cu sequence is included in the collagen molecule, and SPARC protein and GHK-Cu is naturally released after an injury due to protein breakdown.

It is now known that some age-related changes in gene expression are not permanent and can be reversed. Studies show that regular physical exercise of older humans, as little as 30 min daily three times a week, can reset mitochondrial human DNA to a gene expression more like that of a younger person. Other procedures such as healthy diets, wine consumption, and flavonoid supplements are able to modify activity of certain genes, and various types of mediation and anti-stress methods are recommended to improve gene expression [65,66]. However, most biological compounds tested for their effects on gene expression using computer-based tools often lack supporting biological data. GHK has been extensively studied for over four decades and its safety and biological effects has been confirmed in cell, tissue and animal studies.[37].

GHK-Cu is a safe, inexpensive, extensively studied compound that has a wealth of positive and health-promoting effects in many tissues and systems. It has been widely used in anti-aging and cosmetic products in humans for decades without any adverse effects, and can be easily incorporated in creams, liposomes, dermal patches or delivered through microneedles. At present, it is not formulated into dietary supplements, so in our opinion, developing and testing GHK-Cu-based products for internal use to support health of elderly populations and as a complimentary therapy in cancer treatment is one possible direction for future research. Based on both biological and gene data, GHK-Cu also has the potential to be developed into an anti-anxiety and anti-pain supplemental treatment.


1. Pickart L. The human tri-peptide GHK and tissue remodeling. J. Biomater. Sci. Polym. Ed. 2008;19:969–988. doi: 10.1163/156856208784909435.

2. Pickart L., Freedman J.H., Loker W.J., Peisach J., Perkins C.M., Stenkamp R.E., Weinstein B. Growth-modulating plasma tripeptide may function by facilitating copper uptake into cells. Nature. 1980;288:715–717. doi: 10.1038/288715a0.

3. Lamb J. The Connectivity Map: A new tool for biomedical research. Nat. Rev. Cancer. 2007;7:54–60. doi: 10.1038/nrc2044.

4. Pickart L., Vasquez-Soltero J.M., Margolina A. GHK and DNA: Resetting the human genome to health. BioMed Res. Int. 2014;2014:151479. doi: 10.1155/2014/151479.

5. Kimoto E., Tanaka H., Gyotoku J., Morishige F., Pauling L. Enhancement of antitumor activity of ascorbate against Ehrlich ascites tumor cells by the copper: Glycylglycylhistidine complex. Cancer Res. 1983;43:824–828.

6. Pickart L. Ph.D. Thesis. University of California; San Francisco, CA, USA: 1973. A tripeptide in Human Serum That Promotes the Growth of Hepatoma Cells and the Survival of Normal Hepatocytes.

7. Maquart F.X., Pickart L., Laurent M., Gillery P., Monboisse J.C., Borel J.P. Stimulation of collagen synthesis in fibroblast cultures by the tripeptide-copper complex glycyl-l-histidyl-l-lysine-Cu2+ FEBS Lett. 1988;238:343–346. doi: 10.1016/0014-5793(88)80509-X.

8. Siméon A., Wegrowski Y., Bontemps Y., Maquart F.X. Expression of glycosaminoglycans and small proteoglycans in wounds: Modulation by the tripeptide-copper complex glycyl-l-histidyl-l-lysine-Cu(2+) J. Investig. Dermatol. 2000;115:962–968. doi: 10.1046/j.1523-1747.2000.00166.x.

9. Wegrowski Y., Maquart F.X., Borel J.P. Stimulation of sulfated glycosaminoglycan synthesis by the tripeptide-copper complex glycyl-l-histidyl-l-lysine-Cu2+ Life Sci. 1992;51:1049–1056. doi: 10.1016/0024-3205(92)90504-I.

10. Siméon A., Monier F., Emonard H., Gillery P., Birembaut P., Hornebeck W., Maquart F.X. Expression and activation of matrix metalloproteinases in wounds: Modulation by the tripeptide-copper complex glycyl-l-histidyl-l-lysine-Cu2+ J. Investig. Dermatol. 1999;112:957–964. doi: 10.1046/j.1523-1747.1999.00606.x.

11. Siméon A., Emonard H., Hornebeck W., Maquart F.X. The tripeptide-copper complex glycyl-l-histidyl-l-lysine-Cu2+ stimulates matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression by fibroblast cultures. Life Sci. 2000;22:57–65. doi: 10.1016/S0024-3205(00)00803-1.

12. Huang P.J., Huang Y.C., Su M.F., Yang T.Y., Huang J.R., Jiang C.P. In vitro observations on the influence of copper peptide aids for the LED photoirradiation of fibroblast collagen synthesis. Photomed. Laser Surg. 2007;25:183–190. doi: 10.1089/pho.2007.2062.

13. Kang Y.A., Choi H.R., Na J.I., Huh C.H., Kim M.J., Youn S.W., Kim K.H., Park K.C. Copper-GHK increases integrin expression and p63 positivity by keratinocytes. Arch. Dermatol. Res. 2009;301:301–306. doi: 10.1007/s00403-009-0942-x.

14. Leyden J., Stephens T., Finkey M., Appa Y., Barkovic S. Skin Care Benefits of Copper Peptide Containing Facial Cream; Proceedings of the American Academy of Dermatology 60th Annual Meeting; New Orleans, LA, USA. 22–27 February 2002; p. 68.

15. Leyden J., Stephens T., Finkey M., Barkovic S. Skin Care Benefits of Copper Peptide Containing Eye Creams; Proceedings of the American Academy of Dermatology 60th Annual Meeting; New Orleans, LA, USA. 22–27 February 2002; p. 69.

16. Abdulghani A., Sherr A., Shirin S., Solodkina G., Tapia E., Wolf B., Gottlieb A.B. Effects of topical creams containing vitamin C, a copper-binding peptide cream and melatonin compared with tretinoin on the ultrastructure of normal skin—A pilot clinical, histologic, and ultrastructural study. Dis. Manag. Clin. Outcomes. 1998;1:136–141. doi: 10.1016/S1088-3371(98)00011-4.

17. Finkley M., Appa Y., Bhandarkar S. Copper Peptide and Skin. In: Elsner P., Maibach H., editors. Cosmeceuticals and Active Cosmetics: Drugs vs. Cosmetics. Marcel Dekker; New York, NY, USA: 2005. pp. 549–563.

18. Krüger N., et al. Topische Applikation eines Kupfertripeptidkomplexes: Pilotstudie bei gealterter Haut. J. Dtsch. Dermatol. Ges. 2003;1

19. Krüger N., Fiegert L., Becker D., Reuther T., Kerscher M. Zur Behandlung der Hautalterung: Spurenelemente in Form eines Kupfertripeptidkomplexes. Kos. Med. 2003;24:31–33.

20. Badenhorst T., Svirskis D., Merrilees M., Bolke L., Wu Z. Effects of GHK-Cu on MMP and TIMP Expression, Collagen and Elastin Production, and Facial Wrinkle Parameters. J. Aging Sci. 2016;4:166. doi: 10.4172/2329-8847.1000166.

21. Cangul I.T., Gul N.Y., Topal A., Yilmaz R. Evaluation of the effects of topical tripeptide-copper complex and zinc oxide on open-wound healing in rabbits. Vet. Dermatol. 2006;17:417–423. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3164.2006.00551.x.

22. Gul N.Y., Topal A., Cangul I.T., Yanik K. The effects of topical tripeptide copper complex and helium-neon laser on wound healing in rabbits. Vet. Dermatol. 2008;19:7–14. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3164.2007.00647.x.

23. Arul V., Gopinath D., Gomathi K., Jayakumar R. Biotinylated GHK peptide incorporated collagenous matrix: A novel biomaterial for dermal wound healing in rats. J. Biomed. Mater. Res. B Appl. Biomater. 2005;73:383–391. doi: 10.1002/jbm.b.30246.

24. Arul V., Kartha R., Jayakumar R. A therapeutic approach for diabetic wound healing using biotinylated GHK incorporated collagen matrices. Life Sci. 2007;80:275–284. doi: 10.1016/j.lfs.2006.09.018.

25. Canapp S.O., Jr., Farese J.P., Schultz G.S., Gowda S., Ishak A.M., Swaim S.F., Vangilder J., Lee-Ambrose L., Martin F.G. The effect of topical tripeptide-copper complex on healing of ischemic open wounds. Vet. Surg. 2003;32:515–523. doi: 10.1111/j.1532-950X.2003.00515.x.

26. Lane T.F., Iruela-Arispe M.L., Johnson R.S., Sage E.H. SPARC is a source of copper-binding peptides that stimulate angiogenesis. J. Cell Biol. 1994;125:929–943. doi: 10.1083/jcb.125.4.929. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

27. Sensenbrenner M., Jaros G.G., Moonen G., Meyer B.J. Effect of conditioned media on nerve cell differentiation. Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 1980;36:660–662. doi: 10.1007/BF01970123.

28. Lindner G., Grosse G., Halle W., Henklein P. The effect of a synthetic tripeptide nervous tissue cultured in vitro. Z. Mikrosk. Anat. Forsch. 1979;93:820–828.

29. Ahmed M.R., Basha S.H., Gopinath D., Muthusamy J., Jayakumar R.J. Initial upregulation of growth factors and inflammatory mediators during nerve regeneration in the presence of cell adhesive peptide-incorporated collagen tubes. J. Peripher. Nerv. Syst. 2005;10:17–30. doi: 10.1111/j.1085-9489.2005.10105.x.

30. Pickart L., Vasquez-Soltero J., Margolina A. The Effect of the Human Peptide GHK on Gene Expression Relevant to Nervous System Function and Cognitive Decline. Brain Sci. 2017;7:20. doi: 10.3390/brainsci7020020.

31. Cebrian J., Messeguer A., Facino R., Garcia Anton J. New anti-RNS and -RCS products for cosmetic treatment. Int. J. Cosmet. Sci. 2005;27:271–278. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-2494.2005.00279.x.

32. Thomas C.E. The influence of medium components on Cu(2+)-dependent oxidation of low-density lipoproteins and its sensitivity to superoxide dismutase. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1992;1128:50–57. doi: 10.1016/0005-2760(92)90256-U.

33. Beretta G., Arlandini E., Artali R., Anton J.M., Maffei Facino R. Acrolein sequestering ability of the endogenous tripeptide glycyl-histidyl-lysine (GHK): Characterization of conjugation products by ESI-MSn and theoretical calculations. J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 2008;47:596–602. doi: 10.1016/j.jpba.2008.02.012.

34. Beretta G., Artali R., Regazzoni L., Panigati M., Facino R.M. Glycyl-histidyl-lysine (GHK) is a quencher of alpha,beta-4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal: A comparison with carnosine. insights into the mechanism of reaction by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, 1H NMR, and computational techniques. Chem. Res. Toxicol. 2007;20:1309–1314. doi: 10.1021/tx700185s.

35. Miller D.M., DeSilva D., Pickart L., Aust S.D. Effects of glycyl-histidyl-lysyl chelated Cu(II) on ferritin dependent lipid peroxidation. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 1990;264:79–84.

36. Boo S., Dagnino L. Integrins as Modulators of Transforming Growth Factor Beta Signaling in Dermal Fibroblasts During Skin Regeneration After Injury. Adv. Wound Care. 2013;2:238–246. doi: 10.1089/wound.2012.0394. ]

37. Campbell J.D., McDonough J.E., Zeskind J.E., Hackett T.L., Pechkovsky D.V., Brandsma C.A., Suzuki M., Gosselink J.V., Liu G., Alekseyev Y.O., et al. A gene expression signature of emphysema-related lung destruction and its reversal by the tripeptide GHK. Genome Med. 2012;4:67. doi: 10.1186/gm367.

38. Meiners S., Eickelberg O. Next-generation personalized drug discovery: The tripeptide GHK hits center stage in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Genome Med. 2012;4:70. doi: 10.1186/gm371.

39. Park J.R., Lee H., Kim S., Yang S.R. The tri-peptide GHK-Cu complex ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice. Oncotarget. 2016;7:58405. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.11168.

40. Coondoo A., Phiske M., Verma S., Lahiri K. Side-effects of topical steroids: A long overdue revisit. Indian Dermatol. Online J. 2014;5:416–425. doi: 10.4103/2229-5178.142483.

41. Pickart L. Method of Using Copper(II) Containing Compounds to Accelerate Wound Healing. 5,164,367. U.S. Patent. 1992 Nov 17;

42. Heinrich J., Balleisen L., Schulte H., Assmann G., van de Loo J. Fibrinogen and factor VII in the prediction of coronary risk. Results from the PROCAM study in healthy men. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 1994;14:54–59. doi: 10.1161/01.ATV.14.1.54.

43. Lee A.J., Smith W.C.S., Lowe G.D.O., Tunstall-Pedoe H. Plasma fibrinogen and coronary risk factors: The Scottish Heart Health Study. J. Clin. Epidemiol. 1990;43:913–919. doi: 10.1016/0895-4356(90)90075-Z.

44. Pickart L., Vasquez-Soltero J.M., Margolina A. Resetting Skin Genome Back to Health Naturally with GHK. In: Farage M.A., Miller K.W., Maibach H.I., editors. Textbook of Aging Skin. Springer; Berlin, Germany: 2017.

45. Hong Y., Downey T., Eu K., Koh P., Cheah P. A “metastasis-prone” signature for early-stage mismatch-repair proficient sporadic colorectal cancer patients and its implications for possible therapeutics. Clin. Exp. Metastasis. 2010;27:83–90. doi: 10.1007/s10585-010-9305-4.

46. Pickart L., Vasquez-Soltero J.M., Margolina A. GHK Peptide as a Natural Modulator of Multiple Cellular Pathways in Skin Regeneration. BioMed Res. Int. 2015;2015:648108. doi: 10.1155/2015/648108.

47. Rugină D., Hanganu D., Diaconeasa Z., Tăbăran F., Coman C., Leopold L., Bunea A., Pintea A. Antiproliferative and Apoptotic Potential of Cyanidin-Based Anthocyanins on Melanoma Cells. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017;18:949. doi: 10.3390/ijms18050949.

48. Matalka L.E., Ford A., Unlap M.T. The tripeptide, GHK, induces programmed cell death in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. J. Biotechnol. Biomater. 2012;2:1–4. doi: 10.4172/2155-952X.1000144.

49. Pickart L., Vasquez-Soltero J.M., Pickart F.D., Majnarich J. GHK, the Human Skin Remodeling Peptide, Induces Anti-Cancer Expression of Numerous Caspase, Growth Regulatory, and DNA Repair Genes. Anal. Oncol. 2014;3:79–89. doi: 10.6000/1927-7229.2014.03.02.2.

50. Imbert I., Gondran C., Oberto G., Cucumel K., Dal Farra C., Domloge N. Maintenance of the ubiquitin proteasome system activity correlates with visible skin benefits. Int. J. Cosmet. Sci. 2010;32:446–457. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2494.2010.00575.x.

51. Ventafridda V., Fochi C., De Conno D., Sganzerla E. Use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the treatment of pain in cancer. Br. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 1980;10(Suppl. 2):343S–346S. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2125.1980.tb01820.x.

52. Young M.D., Lottes S.R., Webb L.A. An evaluation of cimetidine and ranitidine in the pain relief and acute healing of duodenal ulcer disease. Clin. Ther. 1988;10:543–552. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

53. Bobyntsev I.I., Chernysheva O.I., Dolgintsev M.E., Smakhtin M.Y., Belykh A.E. Anxiolytic Effects of Gly-His-Lys Peptide and Its Analogs. Bull. Exp. Biol. Med. 2015;156:726–728. doi: 10.1007/s10517-015-2847-3. [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

54. Chernysheva O.I., Bobyntsev I.I., Dolgintsev M.E. The tripeptide GLY-HIS-LYS influence on behavior of rats in the test “open field” Adv. Mod. Biol. Sci. 2014;12:357–360. [Google Scholar]

55. Sever’yanova L.А., Dolgintsev M.E. Effects of Tripeptide Gly-His-Lys in Pain-Induced Aggressive-Defensive Behavior in Ra. Bull. Exp. Biol. Med. 2017;164:140–143. doi: 10.1007/s10517-017-3943-3.

56. Hostynek J.J., Dreher F., Maibach H.I. Human skin retention and penetration of a copper tripeptide in vitro as function of skin layer towards anti-inflammatory therapy. Inflamm. Res. 2010;59:983–988. doi: 10.1007/s00011-010-0214-4.

57. Hall J.M., Cruser D., Podawiltz A., Mummert D.I., Jones H., Mummert M.E. Psychological Stress and the Cutaneous Immune Response: Roles of the HPA Axis and the Sympathetic Nervous System in Atopic Dermatitis and Psoriasis. Dermatol. Res. Pract. 2012;2012:403908. doi: 10.1155/2012/403908.

58. Schwartz J., Evers A.W., Bundy C., Kimball A.B. Getting under the Skin: Report from the International Psoriasis Council Workshop on the Role of Stress in Psoriasis. Front. Psychol. 2016;7:87. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00087.

59. Robinson H., Norton S., Jarrett P., Broadbent E. The effects of psychological interventions on wound healing: A systematic review of randomized trials. Br. J. Health Psychol. 2017;22:805–835. doi: 10.1111/bjhp.12257.

60. Brown J. The impact of stress on acute wound healing. Br. J. Community Nurs. 2016;21(Suppl. 12):S16–S22. doi: 10.12968/bjcn.2016.21.Sup12.S16.

61. Mazurowska L., Mojskin M. Biological activities of selected peptides: Skin penetration ability of copper complexes with peptides. J. Cosmet. Sci. 2008;59:59–69.

62. Mazurowska L., Mojski M. ESI-MS study of the mechanism of glycyl-l-histidyl-l-lysine-Cu(II) complex transport through model membrane of stratum corneum. Talanta. 2007;72:650–654. doi: 10.1016/j.talanta.2006.11.034.

63. Swaminathan J., Ehrhardt C. Liposomal delivery of proteins and peptides. Expert Opin. Drug Deliv. 2012;9:1489–1503. doi: 10.1517/17425247.2012.735658.

64. Lalioti V., Muruais G., Tsuchiya Y., Pulido D., Sandoval I.V. Molecular mechanisms of copper homeostasis. Front. Biosci. 2009;14:4878–4903. doi: 10.2741/3575.

65. Szarcvel Szic K., Declerck K., Vidaković M., Vanden B.W. From inflammaging to healthy aging by dietary lifestyle choices: Is epigenetics the key to personalized nutrition? Clin. Epigenet. 2015;7:33. doi: 10.1186/s13148-015-0068-2.

66. Kaliman P., Alvarez-López M.J., Cosín-Tomás M., Rosenkranz M.A., Lutz A., Davidson R.J. Rapid changes in histone deaconesses and inflammatory gene expression in expert meditators. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2014;40:96–107. doi: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2013.11.004.


Recent Posts

See All


What is MOTS-c? MOTS-c is a relatively new peptide of 16 amino acids that promote metabolic balance. It regulates metabolic functions throughout the body. For instance, it turns glucose into usable en


bottom of page